The Blumenfeld Gambit (1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 e6 3.c4 c5 4.d5 b5!?) was invented by the lawyer, chess master, and opening theorist Benjamin Markovich Blumenfeld (24 May 1884 – 5 March 1947), who analyzed the line but appears not to have played it himself -- at least not in any published games. It is a very creative and challenging line where Black immediately contests White's central pawn formation, seeking to gain a preponderance of pawns in the center if White accepts the gambit by 5.dxe6 fxe6 6.cxb5 d5, as seen in the stem game, Tarrasch – Alekhine, Bad Pistyan, 1922. White should decline the gambit with 5.Bg5! or 5.e4, leading to complex play, as Alekhine himself noted in his Best Games.
The gambit often arises via a Benoni move order (1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5), and a logical repertoire combines it with the Benko Gambit (1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 b5) and Vaganian Gambit (1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.Nf3 cxd4 4.Nxd4 e5 5.Nb5 d5 6.cxd5 Bc5), using the Blumenfeld to meet an early Nf3. This repertoire is presented in Boris Alterman's The Alterman Gambit Guide: Black Gambits 1 (2011) and Valery Aveskulov's Attack with Black (2012), and either book would make a great starting point for your studies. The line can also be reached via the move order 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c5, as played by Liviu Dieter Nisipeanu, who combines it with the Nimzo-Indian (3.Nc3 Bb4) to complete his repertoire.
Over the years, the gambit has attracted many strong players, including Rudolf Spielmann (an early adopter in Vukovic - Spielmann, Vienna 1922), Saviely Tartakower (Rubinstein - Tartakower, Teplitz-Schonau 1922), Ljubomir Ljubojevic (Vukic - Ljubojevic, Umag 1974), Ian Rogers (Portisch - Rogers, Reggio Emilia 1984), Lev Alburt (Miles - Alburt, Philadelphia 1989), Nisipeanu (Georgiev - Nisipeanu, Feugen 2006), Mackenzie Molner (Shankland - Molner, Copper State 2010), Francisco Vallejo Pons (Korchnoi - Vallejo Pons, Gibralter 2011), and Marya Muzychuk (Khotenashvili - Muzychuk, European Team 2013). Other games can be found at 365Chess, Chessgames, and ChessTempo; game collections at 98_E10_Blumenfelder Gegenmaßnahmen by whiteshark and Blumenfeld counter gambit by FICSwoodpusher; and Puzzles from the Blumenfeld Counter Gambit (ECO E10) at W.T. Harvey's site.
I have tried to include all of the important videos and literature in the following bibliography. As always, I invite additions and corrections from readers in the comments section below.
The Blumenfeld Gambit: A Sharp Weapon in the Benoni by Andrew Martin (ChessBase DVD 2017)
Opening Survey: The Nikolayev Gambit by Igor Nikolayev, Life in Zugzwang blog (2014)
Discusses the original Blumenfeld-related line 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 b5 4.cxb5 a6 5.bxa6 e6 6.Nc3 exd5 7.Nxd5 Nxa6!? - with some notes on the Blumenfeld along the way.
Attack with Black by Valery Aveskulov, Gambit (2012): 42-64. PDF sample.
A truly excellent presentation, mapping much the same territory explored by Boris Alterman (see below), covering the Benko, Blumenfeld, and Vaganian gambits, with very detailed consideration of White alternatives (such as the Trompowski and Colle, which are frequently seen at the amateur level). Aveskulov offers a detailed analysis rather than sample games, so his book makes for a good theoretical companion to Alterman's (especially since Aveskulov offers quite a bit of his own original analysis), or a more complete substitute.
We Never Walk Alone, edited by Josip Asik: Queen's Pawn Game [E10] Blumenfeld Gambit by Aleksander Delchev (2012)
A very useful article on the 5.Bg5 line. The PDF of the article below.
E10 Blumenfeld Gambit by GM Aleksander Delchev, Informant 112 (2011)
Download the PDF and PGN for $2.99. -- no longer available
The Blumenfeld Gambit [E10] by Abby Marshall at ChessCafe (2011)
Marshall offers a very useful introduction to the gambit, covering the major variations and then analyzing two games, including the classic Tarrasch – Alekhine, Bad Pistyan, 1922.
Chess (2011): 141-195. PDF excerpt.
This book will soon be out of print, so I strongly urge you to get a copy. You will not be disappointed. Alterman covers a lot of lines where Black has a quick win that you will often see over the board but not in too many books. Games include Tarrasch – Alekhine, Bad Pistyan, 1922; Kostic - Maroczy, Weston 1922; Garcia Paolicchi - Ibanez, Catalunya 1995; Saemisch - Marco, Bad Pistyan 1922; Hoenlinger - Spielmann, Vienna 1929; Chernin - Miles, Tunis 1985; Sargissian - Nisipeanu, German League 2006; Ivanchuk - Nisipeanu, Khanty-Mansiysk 2007; and Georgiev - Nisipeanu, Fuegen 2006.
The Blumenfeld Gambit Part 1: An Attacker's Guide! video by Mackenzie Molner, Chess.com (2011)
A general introduction to the Blumenfeld, concluding with a discussion of Alekhine's classic game with the line. This excellent series of videos might justify membership to Chess.com.
The Blumenfeld Gambit Part 2: Amazing Example Game video by Mackenzie Molner, Chess.com (2011)
Examines the game Shankland - Molner, Copper State 2010, which features a wild king hunt.
The Blumenfeld Gambit Part 3: Declining the Beast! video by Mackenzie Molner, Chess.com (2011)
Concludes with a survey of all Black responses to the critical 5.Bg5 line.
The Fabulous 00s: The Blumenfeld is not Good (This is Not News) by Mark Ginsburg at his blog (2010)
Recommends declining the gambit with 5.Bg5! which is definitely White's best, with some good analysis.
Squeezing the Gambits: the Benko, Budapest, Albin and Blumenfeld by Kiril Georgiev, Chess Stars (2010). Recommends the annoying 5.Bg5 line vs. the Blumenfeld. Most of the book is devoted to the Benko declined.
When and When Not to Use Computers 2 video by Mark Ginsburg, Chess.com (2010)
Requires membership and login to view the full video.
Simply Irresistable by Dana Mackenzie video at Chesslecture.com (2010)
Offers a very detailed analysis of Shankland - Molner, Copper State 2010 (47 minutes). Requires membership.
The Gambit Files by Bill Harvey, Mongoose (2010): 95-101.
Preview some pages from the book and get a sense of how it is set up: a brief introduction followed by tactical puzzles.
"Corus 2010, Group C: Robson Scores With Blumenfeld" by Gary Walters at his blog (2010)
The Blumenfeld Gambit Easily Explained by Andrew Martin Foxy 95 DVD (2009?)
A 2 hour and 20 minute presentation on the opening, in standard DVD format. Available from various sources.
The Blumenfeld Gambit by Boris Alterman videos at ICC (2009)
Two videos on the Blumenfeld, for members -- Part 1 and Part 2.
Brother of the Benko - The Blumenfeld Gambit Part 1 by AnthonyCG (2009)
I could not locate any subsequent parts.
Dorian Rogozenco, "The Blumenfeld Gambit," Secrets of Opening Surprises #10 (2009): 22-27. Analyzes the line 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 c5 4.d5 b5 5.Bg5 b4!? -- a specialty of GM Lev Alburt and IM Jean-Rene Koch -- as a new antidote to the annoying declined line. I think the closed nature of the resulting positions (especially after 6.e4 d6 7.Nbd2 Be7 8.h3 e5, which resembles a Czech Benoni) are less dynamic than most Blumenfeld gambiteers would likely prefer. However, the games offered are certainly encouraging: Chabanon - Koch, France 1998; Lautier - Koch, Besancon 1999; Tregubov - Koch, Belfort 2002; and Zhukova - Kolev, Athens 2008.
Modern Chess: Move by Move by Colin Crouch, Everyman (2009): 119-125.
Crouch analyzes the game Sargissian - Nisipeanu, German League 2006, move-by-move.
Dangerous Weapons: The Benoni and Benko, by Richard Palliser, John Emms, Chris Ward, & Gawain Jones, Everyman Chess (2008)
Features chapters on "Adventures in the Blumenfeld Gambit Accepted" (5.dxe6 fxe6 6.cxb5 d5) and "The Pseudo-Blumenfeld Gambit" (4.Nc3 b5!?).
The Benko's Companion by John Paul Wallace video at Chesslecture.com (2007)
Analyzes Miles - Alburt, Philadelphia 1989. Requires membership.
A Brilliant Attack by Milan Bjelajac Informant at ChessCafe (2007). Informant annotations for the best attacks of the year, including the excellent Georgiev - Nisipeanu, Fuegen 2006.
"A Simple and Effective Variation: Blumenfeld Gambit" by Konstantin Landa, New in Chess Yearbook 84 (2007). Download PGN.
Blumenfeld Gambit E10 by Mihail Marin ChessBase Magazine #118 (2007)
Covers 1.d4 Nf6 2.c3 e6 3.Nf3 c5 4.d5 b5 5.Bg5 exd5 6.cxd5 and now 6...d6 or 6...h6!?
A Secret Opening Weapon Against 1.d4: Part I, Part II, and Part III videos by Bill Paschall (2006) An excellent three-part series of online video lectures on the Blumenfeld Gambit, focused on the 5.Bg5! line and discussing the games Rafael Vaganian - Karen Ashotovich Grigorian, USSR 1971; Boris Avrukh - Andrei Volokitin, Greece 2005; Alexander Onischuk vs Ehsan Ghaem Maghami, 36th Olympiad 2004; and Alex Yermolinsky - Larry Christiansen, US Championship 2006. Requires membership.
Starting Out: Benoni Systems by Alex Raetsky and Maxim Chetverik (2005): 115-134.
This might be a useful book for players new to the Benoni system, but the coverage of the Blumenfeld offer only a general and sketchy overview. Games discussed include Tarrasch - Alekhine, Pistyan 1922; Chetverik - Csiszar, Budapest 1996; Polugaevsky - Ljubojevic, Manila 1975; Van der Stricht - Ikonnikov, Belgium 2001; and Grabliauskas - Vredenborg, Berlin 1997.
Blumenfeld Gambit E10 by Sergey Anapolsky (1999)
Blumenfeld Gambit by Jerzy Konikowski and Jan Przewoznik, Walter Rau Verlag (1997)
"Blumenfeld Gambit" by Paul Van der Sterren, New in Chess Yearbook 32 (1994)
Trends in the Blumenfeld Gambit by Susan Arkell (1994)
The "trends" series only offered games without special analysis.
The Blumenfeld Gambit by Jan Przewoznik and Malcolm Pein (Pergamon / Cadogan Press 1991)
One of the first books to take the Blumenfeld seriously as a GM weapon -- even though its analysis of the declined line with 5.Bg5 definitely favored White. Games given in the historical introduction include Tarrasch - Alekhine, Pistyan 1922; Dus-Chotimirski - Levenfish, Moscow 1922; Gruenfeld - Rabinovich, Moscow 1925; Lukov - Przewoznik, Naleczow 1981; and Browne - Dzindzichashvili, USA 1984.
Correspondence Chess Yearbook 6 (1990)
Includes theoretical articles on the Sicilian Dragon (B76) and Blumenfeld Gambit (E10).